UNIDO International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS) – Publications Archive


The following articles, books and proceedings were published by the UNIDO International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS) in Trieste, Italy (1996 – 2012). They include scientific books, articles, papers, posters and workshop proceedings published in-house or in internationally recognized scientific magazines.


COWAR: A CAPE OPEN Software Module for the Evaluation of Process Sustainability
Maurizio Fermeglia, Gennaro Longo, Letitia Toma
The sustainability of a chemical process can be estimated using qualitative and quantitative indicators, which have led to the development of COWAR, a software module for the evaluation of process sustainability. Details regarding the COWAR development and function are presented in this work. Finally, a representative chemical process is presented to demonstrate the software applicability.
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Quantitative analysis of green tea polyphenols in Indian cultivars
G. Longo , M. Karan, P. D. Sharma, D. D. Rakesh, S. Vyas and K. Vasisht
Green tea catechins (GTCs), namely (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG), were analysed in 25 prominent Indian tea cultivars cultivated in North, South and North-east states of India using an optimized procedure of extraction and HPLC determination. Kangra Jawala grown in Palampur (North India) showed the highest content of EGCG (6.88%), followed by TRI-2026 (6.83%) grown in Coonoor (South India) and lowest content were recorded in P-126 (1.2%) grown in Darjeeling. The TV-1 cultivars from Palampur showed the highest content of ECG (2.74%) among all the samples analysed.
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Development of a Process Sustainability Prediction (PSP) framework
Maurizio Fermeglia, Gennaro Longo, Letitia Toma
This work describes a general framework for the prediction of industrial sustainability integrated with process simulators. Two kinds of sustainability indicators are used in the present work: (i) three-dimensional indicators (3D-indicators) and (ii) one-dimensional indicators (1D-indicators). The methodology proposed by Martins, containing 3D-indicators, is used in this framework as a first evaluation of the global sustainability of the process under study. One relevant 1D indicator is the Waste Reduction Algorithm (WAR). In PSP the algorithm is implemented in a CAPE OPEN standard methodology which is able to interact with most process simulators software available on the market. The paper describes the development of the Weighting Factors Interface, the development of CAPE OPEN Modules and the development of the Potential Environmental Indexes Interface, which are the most important elements of the implementation of the WAR.
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A Hierarchical Approach for the Estimation of Environmental Impact of a Chemical Process: from Molecular Modeling to Process Simulation
The concept of sustainable development is a common one in the 21st century. The three important elements of this sustainability are: economy, society and environment. The chemical processes, which are directly connected with the economy, affect the environment and society in different ways. The Waste Reduction Algorithm (WAR Algorithm), the methodology developed by Cabezas with the goal of determining the potential environmental impact (PEI) of a chemical process, is used in this work as a decision support tool to choose the best environmental solution from various alternative chemical process designs. The equations of the WAR Algorithm have been implemented in a standard computer code, CAPE OPEN, and the code was tested in different process simulators. One possible limitation for the applicability of the WAR Algorithm to a given process is the availability of toxicological data. At present the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a databank of toxicological properties that covers 1707 compounds that may not be enough for some particular process. In this paper we present a methodology for inputting the toxicological data from molecular modeling in a form compatible with the EPA data bank. Several different approaches are used for the estimation of the thermo-physical properties including quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo and QSAR.
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A web-based decision support tool for groundwater remediation technologies selection
Olfa Khelifi, Andrea Lodolo, Sanja Vranes, Gabriele Centi and Stanislav Miertus
Groundwater remediation operation involves several considerations in terms of environmental, technological, and socio-economic aspects. A decision support tool (DST) becomes therefore necessary in order to manage problem complexity and to define effective groundwater remediation interventions. CCR (Credence Clearwater Revival), a decision support tool for groundwater remediation technologies assessment and selection, has been developed to help decision-makers (site owners, investors, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc) to assess the available technologies and select the preferred remedial options. The analysis is based on technical, economical, environmental and social criteria. These criteria are all ranked by involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular groundwater remediation project. The Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is the core of the CCR using the PROMETHEE II algorithm.
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Environmental scope, Chapter 5: perspectives
M. Fermeglia
This paper covers perspectives of environmental aspects concerning hydrogen technology. Hydrogen should be the energy carrier in the future, but still many questions arise in terms of production, storage and utilization – questions that become challenges for the near future. This contribution deals with the main environmental problem that hydrogen technology should ultimately solve: carbon dioxide emissions Particular attention is devoted to the benefits that the introduction of hydrogen technology has brought to energy production. Direct positive effects of the production, storage, and utilization of hydrogen are perceived immediately in terms of carbon dioxide emission reduction and thus, global warming reduction. This results in a cascade of benefits for the climate, biodiversity, agriculture, and in general to the quality of life and nation economy. The issue of global warming and its relation with carbon dioxide handling is illustrated.
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Multi-disciplinary report on approaches to decision making and integrated water resource management in the Mediterranean
E. Feoli, M. Ghribi, G. Longo and M. Scimone
This report focuses on the multi-disciplinary analysis of the water cycle in the Mediterranean as part of the NOSTRUM-DSS project deliverables (D3-4). The report deals with a compared analysis and synthesis of three disciplinary reports, namely the economic issues (D3-1, produced by CNRS, France), the social issues (D3-2, EIA/UATLA, Portugal) and the environmental issues (D3-3, CEDARE, Egypt) on water cycle and water management in the Mediterranean. The study aims at evaluating the major indicators coming from the analysis of the various disciples and integrates the different aspects in view of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach and in line with the statements of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD).
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Energy Production from biomass gasification by molten carbonate fuel cells: process simulation
M. Fermeglia, G. De Simon, G. Donolo
This paper presents an integrated approach to the steady state simulation of biomass gasification, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and power generation processes. The software developed allows the study ‘in silico’ of the effect of variations of the process conditions as well as modification of the input fuel, thus providing a useful tool for supporting technical decisions and feasibility study of the use of fuel cells in developing countries.
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Computer Simulation of Stationary Energy Production from Biomass by Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
M. Fermeglia and G. Longo
This paper presents an integrated approach to the steady state and dynamic simulation of fuel cells and power generation processes. Attention is given to Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) due to the relatively low cost, simple construction and flexibility of use of the fuel. Two models are used in this work, both recently presented in the literature: (i) a steady state model simulating a global (MCFC) power plant and (ii) a dynamic model for the same cell (MCFC). The models are based on real plant data and the simulations are selected according to real operating conditions. The computer simulation is finally applied to a feasibility study of a MCFC coupled with a biomass gasification process. This paper reports the results of computer simulation for a realistic configuration of a power system generated by MCFC, focusing on macroscopic quantities of interest such as stack efficiency, global process electrical efficiency, cogenerative efficiency, integrated with a consistent dynamic model of the cell able to consider microscopic and distributed variables behaviour such as temperature and concentration in the cells. The software developed allows the in silico study of the effect of variations in the process conditions as well as modification of the input fuel, thus providing a useful tool for supporting technical decisions and feasibility studies on the use of fuel cells in developing countries.
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Process simulation for molten carbonate fuel cells
M. Fermeglia, A. Cudicio, G. DeSimon, G. Longo, S. Pricl
In the framework of electricity production from molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), this work presents the results obtained from steady state process simulation, coupled with a detailed dynamic model for the cell. The derivation of the model is briefly outlined and detailed results of the simulation are reported. Macroscopic state variables of the overall system process are investigated by means of sensitivity analysis, yielding clear conditions for process improvement and optimization. The detailed steady state and dynamic simulation of the MCFC for a bidimensional cross flow configuration showed the importance of the state variable distribution in the cell. The process studied was a 500 kW MCFC power system based on Ansaldo fuel cell (AFC) technology. The steady state simulation revealed the main interactions among the different devices involved in the process, and the subsequent sensitivity analysis showed that there is room for improvement in electrical efficiency by increasing: i) the steam to methane ratio; ii) the pressure and; iii) the air feed ratio. The dynamic simulation yielded the quantitative response of the system to several different perturbations and proved to be a valid tool for determining temperature, current and voltage profiles as a function of time within the fuel cells.
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ICS-UNIDO: Promoting sustainable POPs disposal and remediation technologies
Zinovyev S., Lodolo A., Miertus S.
It is well known that a significant stock of polychlorinated hazards, including POP and PTS, has been produced and is currently stored or dispersed in the environment in many of developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The obsolete industrial processes giving rise to formation of dioxins, as well as former/current POP production/use (e.g. PCBs), coupled with uncontrolled use of polychlorinated pesticides in agriculture and improper storage of POP stockpiles, have rendered vast territories in these countries highly contaminated and raised urgent issues concerning the disposal of hazards and remediation of territories.
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Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste
Khelifi O., Zinovyev S., Lodolo A., Vranes S., Miertus S.
The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tools to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste. One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options available. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for a specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options, which are based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria.
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Information technology for cleaner water
S. Vranes, A. Lodolo, S. Miertus
The goal of the work presented in this paper is to develop a systematic approach to the assessment, selection and optimisation of water remediation schemes and to implement this approach in a decision support system that can be used by environmental professionals, policy makers, site owners and other stakeholders. Our decision support system can simultaneously evaluate various remedial action alternatives for multiple contaminants, taking into account users’ specific needs and preferences, and provide a ranking of the best options. The system is based on a heterogeneous, hybrid software architecture integrating together a variety of information technologies, and targets the development of an integrated, holistic approach to environmental decision making.
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Steady state and dynamic simulation of molten carbonate fuel cells
Fermeglia M., Cudicio A., DeSimon G., Longo G., Pricl S.
This paper addresses the simulation of fuel cells systems in a steady state and dynamic condition. Two models are developed for this purpose: (i) a steady state model implemented in Aspen+ 11.1 simulating a global carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) power plant and; (ii) a dynamic model implemented in the Aspen Custom Modeler for the same cell. Both models are based on real plant data, and the simulation parameters are selected according to real operating conditions. The process studied is a 500 kW MCFC power system based on Ansaldo fuel cells (AFC) technology. The steady state simulation evidenced the main interactions among the different devices composing the process, and the sensitivity analysis conducted showed that there is room for improvement in electrical efficiency by increasing the steam to methane ratio, the pressure and the feed air. The dynamic simulation showed the quantitative response of the system to several disturbances and proved to be a valid tool for determining the temperature, the current and the voltage profiles as a function of time within the fuel cells.
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Molecular modelling and process simulation: real possibilities and challenges
Fremeglia M., Pricl S., Longo G.
State-of-the-art molecular modelling, with particular attention to the possibilities of application to process simulation, is reviewed in this paper. The basic principles of molecular modelling are presented, as well as the recent achievements in direct applications of the methods. Modelling in process engineering is discussed, showing how different models and theories should be applied for different times and lengths of the process of interest. Finally, a selected series of examples of application of molecular modelling to problems of interest to process engineering is presented, showing that molecular modelling is a mature technique to be used for generating information to be used in process engineering.
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Software toolset for sustainable decision-making
Vranes S., Ghribi M., Longo G., Miertus S., Pizzio F.
The goal is to have as many systematic and comprehensive tools and resources pertinent to sustainable decision-making readily accessible through internet, including a set of criteria through which to assess policy alternatives, technological alternatives, project proposals, the consequences of past decisions or the performance of past programmes. A subset of tools has already been implemented, including a spatial decision-support system for sustainable industrial siting, decision aid for holistic technology assessment and selection, and a software toolkit to support and reduce the cost of a technology foresight exercise. The current plans call for the development of the integrated tool for multicriteria assessment of the extent and dynamics of sustainability, including identification of the most important indicators promoting or impeding progress toward sustainable development.
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Yb:KYW microchip laser performance: fundamental frequency generation and Raman self-frequency conversion
A.S. Grabchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V.A. Lisinetskii, V.A. Orlovich
We present a diode pumped Yb:KYW microchip laser. Passively Q-switched and CW regimes of operation for the Yb:KYW microchip laser was tested with a set of output couplers. A slope efficiency of 23% has been achieved for CW operation. Raman self-frequency conversion for the microchip cavity configuration have been observed.
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An overview of landscape structure through the application of fractal dimension to remotely sensed images using GIS technology
Altobelli A., Feoli E., Ourabia L.
This paper proposes an automated procedure to produce synthetic maps of landscape spatial patterns using vegetation parameters obtained from remotely sensed images. They are used because vegetation (natural and/or artificial) is the biological component of the landscape most directly affected by land use and it is commonly used to characterize the land cover. We select two parameters capable of quantifying the fragmentation of vegetation mass. They are the normalized difference index (NDVI) and its fractal dimension (FD).
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Tumor gelatinases and invasion inhibited by the green tea flavonol EGCG
Garbisa S., Sartor L., Biggin S., Salvato B., Benelli R., Albini A.
Given the association of consumption of green tea with prevention of cancer development, metastasis and angiogenesis, the researched examined the effect of the main flavanol present (epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)) on two gelatinases most frequently overexpressed in cancer and angiogenesis (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and on tumor cell invasion and chemotaxis. Zymography, Western blotting, and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay were used to analyze the effect of EGCG on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, whereas its effect on tumor cell invasion and chemotaxis was examined using modified Boyden chamber assays.
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On the performance of short pulse Nd3+:LSB microchip lasers
Danailov M. B, Demidovich A.A, Kuzmin A.N, Kuzmin O.V, Hait V.L
Experimental results from studies of the laser characteristics of Nd:LSB crystals in both cs and passive Q-switching arrangements are presented. The dependence of the main laser parameters on the output coupling and saturable absorber transmission for two doping levels of Nd was investigated. It is demonstrated that due to its high absorption, low losses and intrinsic strong thermal lensing, even at pump powers of less than 200 mW, the Nd:LSB has excellent properties in terms of efficiency, beam quality and pulse duration. In addition, it exhibits high pulse-to-pulse and pulse width versus pump power stability.
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Multiparadigm Software Tool for Technology Foresight
Vranes S., Opacic B., Pizzio F.
The technology foresight process seeks to identify technologies that will be key to national and/or regional economic development in the longer term, and to make recommendations to address the investment opportunities and other challenges associated with these technologies. International experience demonstrates that technology foresight is neither simple, nor is it unproblematic. As such, most international experts have come to agree that it is likely to be most successful as a continuous process rather than a one-off task. To make the technology foresight exercise simpler, cheaper, less problematic and inherently continuous, we have decided to support it with a software toolkit. This software also represents an effective platform for harmonising various foresight methodologies into a consistent composite. It enables a holistic foresight exercise, based on both panel activities (scenarios, recommendations, policy proposals, etc.) and a large scale “via-net” Delphi survey.
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Concepts of combinatorial chemistry and combinatorial technologies
Miertus S, Fassina G, Seneci P
Combinatorial Chemistry and Combinatorial Technology(CC/CT) are a new interdisciplinary field joining computer assisted combinatorial chemistry with automated parallel synthesis of chemical “libraries” followed by automated screening. The main purpose of computer assisted combinatorial chemistry is to generate thousands structurally diverse compounds as libraries, maximising their diversity, which are then considered in an experimental parallel automated synthesis and screening on the basis of their properties. The key issue is to integrate all important steps of CC/CT in a single, multidisciplinary approach.
While CC/CT had the greatest impact on the drug industry, combinatorial methods need not be restricted to pharmaceutical applications. This technique can be used whenever high numbers of compounds have to be prepared for testing. Many countries have emphasized the urgent need to get acquainted with Combinatorial Technologies in order to enable local enterprises to remain competitive and economically viable in the coming decades and gain expertise on application practices of combinatorial technology. In view of global competition, CC/CT together with molecular modeling may be considered as powerful tools for the implementation and/or the increase of a country’s capabilities in drug design, agrochemistry, new materials and new catalysts.This publication contains conclusions submitted by participants from a workshop.
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Process Simulation and Modeling for Sustainable Industrial Development
M. Fermeglia, S. Miertus, F. Pizzio
This paper illustrates the concept of sustainability and investigates how sustainable development can be related to industrial development with particular attention to the situation in developing countries. The role of chemistry and specifically that of chemical engineers, is focused. Two main areas of interest for the development of sustainable processes are then investigated, namely process simulation and molecular modeling. This last process has been traditionally confined in the cultural area of theoretical chemistry and physics, but is nowadays a mature tool to be used by chemical and process engineers. Finally, the importance of these tools for developing countries is considered and the activity of ICS-UNIDO in this respect is reported.
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Tumor invasion: molecular shears blunted by green tea
Garbisa S, Biggin S, Cavallarin N, Sartor L, Benelli R, Albini A
A letter to the editor in the Nature Medicine academic journal on the prevention of cancer development and metastasis associated with green tea consumption.
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Combustion Diagnostics and Optical Techniques, Buah-Bassuah PK (ed.), Proc. Workshop, July 1999
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Geographical awareness for modern travellers: a GIS application for maritime transportation in the Mediterranean Sea
M. Dragan, M. Fernetti, V. Spitadakis
Geographical awareness for modern travellers: a GIS application for maritime transportation in the Mediterranean Sea. Modern travellers are becoming increasingly demanding and specialized, willing to play an active role in shaping their journeys. Spatially enabled applications can efficiently cater for the needs of today’s tourists, enabling them to dynamically adapt their trip according to contingent events. Ship Information And Management System (SIAMS) is an international project within the Telematics Application Programme of the European Commission aiming to provide novel services to shipping companies, travel agencies, passengers, citizens and local authorities through the use of the most advanced technologies in telecommunications, GIS and networking applications. A MapObjects application has been implemented to provide, at any given moment, information regarding position and conditions of the ships and spatial links to other services. Multimedia information kiosks at port locations and on board, as well as any internet client using a MapObjects Internet Map Server, will be able to assist users in getting real-time ship schedules, retrieving general tourist information on trip destinations, finding connections to other means of transportation and accessing on-line booking services (hotels, car rentals, etc.).
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Singapore forges ahead to harnessing light in the 21st century
Tuan-Kay Lim
Description and objectives of an intensive training course “Photonics Technology in the 21st Century: Principles and Applications”, which was held at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE), Nanyang Technological Univ. (NTU; Singapore).
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Developing world packs industrial laser courses
Morato S and Lima M
Description of training course on laser applications in developing countries.
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Diffusion of photons in the frame of the integral form of the transport equation
Fernandez JE, Molinari VG and Teodori F
In this paper the 3D photon transport equation is considered in order to give a detailed description of the fluorescence photo emission from a homogenous slab. As an example we study, with a complete 3D spatial description in plane geometry, the distribution both in physical and momentum space of the primary photos, induced by a radiation beam crossing the slab. Will will then examine how 3D geometry influences the shape of the continuous spectra due to a second Compton collision which modifies the distribution of the primaries due to the photoelectric effect. The results will be compared with those obtained in the case of a half-infinite medium uniformly irradiated with a plane infinite slant source of monochromatic photons previously solved in 1D.
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It takes two to tango.
An opinion piece on the United Nations.
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GIS technology and spatial analysis in coastal zone management
Fedra K, Feoli E
This paper reviews methods and tools for spatial analysis, their integration and application to coastal zone management. Following a definition of the coastal zone and a short description of its peculiarities and unique management problems, the paper begins by describing the major tools for spatial analysis, in particular GIS and remote sensing, spatially distributed simulation modelling and optimisation, and expert systems, as well as their integration in information and decision support systems. This is followed by a short review of the main paradigms of spatial analysis such as environmental impact analysis, risk assessment and policy analysis, and specific problems such as zoning and site selection. Special emphasis is given to the issues of industrial development in coastal zone management.
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Industrial applications of lasers in Latin American countries
S. P. Morato
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Industrial ecology: an application of GIS and quantitative community methods for the analysis of industrial patterns
Altobelli A, Feoli E, Iadarola F, Milesi C
In modern industrial societies, all development must be planned in light of its probable impact on the environment. In this context, industrial ecology has evolved with the aim of studying the interactions between industry and basic environmental systems in a systematic way. This paper aims to demonstrate how Geographic Information Systems and certain spatial pattern analysis methods, namely the nearest-neighbour and spatial autocorrelation techniques, can be used to assess the dynamics of industrial systems, facilitating industrial planning and environmental control.
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Renewable H2 from glycerol steam reforming: effect of La2O3 and CeO2 addition to Pt/Al2O3 catalysts
T. Montini, R. Singh, P. Das, B. Lorenzut, N. Bertero, P. Riello, A. Benedetti, G. Giambastiani, C. Bianchini, S. Zinoviev, S.Miertus & P. Fornasiero
Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production and its increasing producation can be derived more and more from growing biofuels demand. Therefore, glycerol conversion to H2-rich mixtures is not only an interesting research topic but more importantly an attractive way towards a sustainable biodiesel production. Here we explored the use of Pt/Al2O3-based catalysts for the catalytic steam reforming of glycerol, evidencing the influence of La2O3 or CeO2 doping on the catalyst activity and selectivity. The addition of the latter metal oxides to a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst is found to significantly improve the glycerol steam reforming, with high H2 and CO2 productions. A good catalytic stability is finally achieved for the Pt/La2O3/Al2O3 system working at 350 °C, while the Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst sharply deactivates after 20h under similar conditions. Studies carried out on fresh and exhaust catalysts have revealed that both systems maintain high surface area and Pt dispersion. Therefore, the observed catalyst deactivation can be attributed to coke deposition on the catalyst active sites throughout the catalytic process and marginally to the Pt nanoparticle sintering. This work suggests that an appropriate support composition is of mandatory importance for preparing highly performing Pt-based catalysts for the sustainable glycerol conversion into syn-gas.
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Assessment of global bioenergy potential
Offermann R., Seidenberger T., Thrдn D., Kaltschmitt M., Zinoviev S., Miertus S.
This paper provides an overview of the available research on bioenergy potentials and reviews the different assessments qualitatively with the objective to interpret previous research in an integrated way. In this review special attention was paid to the difference between residue and energy potentials, land availability estimates, and the geographical resolution of existing potential estimates. The majority of studies concentrate on energy crop potentials retrieved from surplus agricultural land and only a few publications assess global potentials separated by different world regions. It results that land allocated to the exclusive production of energy crops varies from 0 to 7,000 ha, depending on land category and scenario assumptions. Only a small number of available potential assessments consider residue potentials as well as energy crop potentials from degraded land. Future energy crop potentials are assumed to vary in the mean from 200 to 600 EJ/yr. In contrast, residue potentials are expected to contribute between 62 and 325 EJ/yr. The highest potentials are assigned to Asia, Africa and South America while Europe, North America and the Pacific region contribute minor parts to the global potential.
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Seismic and Electromagnetic Study of Reservoir Properties for Geothermal Applications
Michele Pipan, Emanuele Forte, Anna Del Ben, H. Fernando Navas Alonzo, Geoffrey Giudetti, Supriyanto Suparno
Joint reflection seismic, resistivity and multi-fold ground-penetrating radar (MFGPR) study of reservoir analogues allows extracting information about cross-property relations of interest in the characterization and monitoring of deep geothermal resources. In particular, a link between resistivity and velocity of seismic waves can be established though porosity. MFGPR is further used as a structural and physical properties validation tool, as it provides ultra-high resolution images of the rock volume, including networks of joints and fractures, estimates of electromagnetic impedance and detailed mapping of variations in electromagnetic properties that affect amplitude and velocity and are highlighted by the attributes of the radar trace. Comparison between experimental results, theoretical and empirical cross-property relations connecting electrical conductivity to elastic moduli and velocities of rocks shows that combined methods provide enhanced assessment of reservoir characteristics, with particular reference to porosity. We test the method on a Tertiary limestone outcrop.
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Next Generation Biofuels: survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues
Sergei Zinoviev, F. Mueller Langer, Piyali Das, N. Bertero, P. Fornasiero, M. Kaltschmitt, G. Centi, S. Miertus
Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology-related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as addressing related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of the technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situations, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter issues are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry.
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Integration of geophysical and geochemical data for the study of geothermal systems
M. Pipan, H. Alonzo, G. Giudetti, E. Forte, P.Jacobo, P. Rasi, S. Suparno, A. Manzella
Exploration geophysics and geochemistry/geochemical tools are widely used to investigate and characterize geothermal systems in the world. GIS (Geographic Information System) tools can be very useful in reservoir management as well as for site identification, coupling surface evidence (gas emissions, hot springs, etc.) with mapping of geophysical and geological information. Advanced geophysical and geochemical techniques are now applied to three different areas (Auachapan, Mount Endut, Weh Island) with respect to three distinct problems.
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Reply to question: Should local communities be encouraged to develop their own sustainable solutions, such as geothermal energy, to power generation?
Michele Pipan, Giorgio Rosso Cicogna
Response to the question “should local communities be encouraged to develop their own sustainable solutions, such as geothermal energy, to power generation?”. This report considers the timescale and technology presently available.
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A chance to biofuels for a chance to Africa. Will the technology make change?
Sergei Zinoviev, Stanislav Miertus
New technologies for production of biofuels and for energy generation from waste biomass open up promising opportunities for human and industrial development in Africa, a continent rich of bio-resources and unexplored potential. The solutions are reachable but need sustainable implementation to secure food resources and the environment.
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Rural ICT Participatory Appraisal – RIPA
Nicola Drago
This Infokit deals with a research approach known as Rural ICT Participatory Appraisal (RIPA), which aims to support the assessment of sustainability aspects of information and communication technology (ICT) projects in rural communities. It has been designed and implemented by ICS UNIDO to verify the feasibility of ICT projects in rural communities within the framework of the ICT for Sustainable Rural Development (ISRD) initiative. RIPA aims to identify the priorities in rural communities that could be resolved with ICTs.
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Renewable Energy Technologies for the Production of Bio-Fuels: Perspectives and Appropriate Technologies for African Countries
Graziano Bertogli, Alfonso Avila-Merino, Vincenzo Naso, Enrico Bocci, Emanuela Corazzi
Energy is an important factor in the three areas relating to sustainability: economic, social and environmental. The problems related to energy use and production are becoming increasingly widespread, involving not only scientific institutions, energy companies and governments, but also industries and consumers. Resolving the world’s energy problem is a challenge that involves the sustainable development of renewable energy and a revised model of industrial and social development, i.e. a sustainable energy system requires change and adaptation to the entire energy chain, from energy supply to technologies to end users. The promotion and implementation of methods, technologies and processes for sustainable economic, social and environmental development of energy production and use is crucial.
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G. Centi, P. Fornasiero, M. Kaltschmitt, S. Miertus, F.Müller-Langer, S. Rönsch, A. Sivasamy, D. Thrän, A. Vogel, S. Zinoviev
This book covers the following topics: technical, environmental and economic profiles of future biofuels, technical profiles of bio-based chemicals, and technical profiles of biorefineries references.
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BIO-FUELS: Technology Status and Future Trends, Technology Assessment and Decision Support Tools
S. Arumugam, S. Zinoviev, P. Foransiero, S. Miertus, F. Müller-Langer, M. Kaltschmitt, A. Vogel, D. Thraen
The book will cover the following topics: first generation of biofuels, second generation of biofuels and biorefineries, technology evaluation aspects, decision support tools for biofuels and biofuels technology assessment.
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Support systems in favour of renewable energy: Overview of EU models and experiences
Graziano Bertogli, Francesca Mittempergher, Alfonso Avila-Merino
This study provides an overview of European Union financial tools and incentive programmes (direct financing, green certificates, fiscal benefits) introduced by Member States in order to increase the exploitation of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity, heating and cooling, as well as fuel for transport.
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Centro de innovación para tecnologia de punta
Graziano Bertogli, Jose’ Luis Rhi-Sausi, Alfonso Avila-Merino
Una de las peticiones más frecuentes de varias instituciones de México y otros países de America Latina se refiere a uno de los principales cuellos de botella en la creación de empresas cuya problemática es similar en la mayoría de países en desarrollo, que es la falta de la comunicación eficaz entre el sector académico y el mundo industrial. En este contexto, el ICS ha propuesto una actividad especifica sobre el estudio y la creación de “nuevo concepto de centro de innovación” como un intento de reducir esa brecha. Estos Centros servirían como “centros de enlace” para desarrollar potenciales proyectos de cooperación entre la universidad y la industria, operando con diferentes instrumentos, incluyendo herramientas financieras especiales para la puesta en marcha de plantas piloto, spin-offs, start-ups, etc. México es una plataforma ideal para realizar esta iniciativa que de tener éxito, podrían replicarse en otros países en desarrollo son condiciones socio-económicas similares.
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Laser technologies: a step forward for small and medium enterprises
Nicola Drago, Paolo Villoresi, Graziano Bertogli
This publication provides an overview of present and future laser technology applications for industrial products manufacturing, e.g. metal and non-metal processing and quality control. The target audience is small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to raise their interest in these technologies, which could be complementary and, in certain cases, more profitable alternatives to conventional manufacturing technologies, due to their good flexibility, quality of output and decreasing investment cost. This report is organized into two parts: Laser technologies and Lasers in the future: Perspectives for small and medium enterprises. The manufacturing sector was chosen both because of the high added-value of laser technologies in this sector, and its importance in the industrial bases of developing or transition economies.
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Pre-feasibility study for the development of a mini cement plant in Colombia
Leonardo Rosas Sanchez, Marco Nardini, Graziano Bertogli, Alfonso Avila Merino
This pre-feasibility study consists of financial and technological analysis related to the construction of a small sized cement plant in Colombia, specifically in Departamento del Meta (DM). The objective of the project is to provide Colombian institutions with tools for application in their activities and programmes to alleviate housing problems in a number of Colombian regions and areas, taking account of local conditions and the availability of raw materials, energy resources and potential markets
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Available technologies for local building materials
Sergio Meriani
This publication covers the following topics: using soil to manufacture blocks, the recovery of recycling materials and processing, design and handling of these materials, strategies to optimize recycling, recycling of demolition material, composite materials in the building industry, low-cost building materials, and the life cycle assessment (LCA) method for low-cost building materials.
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Propuesta para el establecimiento del “Fondo Mexicano de Capital Riesgo, Región Centro-Norte”
Graziano Bertogli, Sergio Treichler
En Marzo de 2007 un taller y una reunión de expertos sobre la “Cooperación Universidad – Industria” se ha celebrado en la Ciudad de México. Después de dos días de actividades, más de 40 participantes provenientes de Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Italia, México y Portugal estuvieron de acuerdo sobre la importancia fundamental de la promoción, creación y desarrollo empresarial aunados a servicios financieros. Ambos deben ser regionalizados y focalizados a las cadenas de valor en vez de sectores,subsectores industriales o productos. De hecho, el análisis de experiencias de los últimos años, demuestra que el éxito en la transferencia, adquisición y adaptación de tecnología no se encuentra en el apoyo a un grupo de empresas dentro del mismo sector o de productos, sino a cadenas de valor que añade valor al producto o servicio final. De esta forma, se logra el desarrollo de todos los agentes económicos que participan en el proceso. Programas y políticas de fomento territorial fueron establecidos para desarrollar y aplicar nuevas tecnologías y ponerlas a disposición de los mercados, gracias a la integración de academia, ciencias, industria, finanzas, gestión y instituciones públicas y privadas. De este fenómeno se están beneficiando incluso algunas regiones de Austria (alrededor de la zona de Salzburgo, Carintia) o en decadencia industrial (Lancashire y Yorkshire, en Inglaterra) o caracterizadas por fuertes procesos de reconversión industriales (Renania del Norte – Westfalia, particularmente Dortmund) que aplican con determinación una visión compartida a mediano y largo plazo. En el grupo de los países capaces de promover nuevas empresas para atraer la inversión extranjera directa en tecnología, Italia está solo ahora empezando a hacer los primeros pasos hacia la creación de spin-offs y start-ups industriales y académicos.
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Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
S. S. Handa, S. P. S. Khanuja, G. Longo, D. D. Rakesh
This book focuses on different techniques of hydrodistillation, steam distillation, cohobation and fractional distillation of volatile oils from aromatic plants and on water-solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction for medicinal plant extracts. It also discusses general, specific and advanced technologies for preparing extracts of medicinal plants and the extraction of volatile oils and fragrances from aromatic plants. This book is intended to equip emerging and developing countries with techniques of extraction that can help them to produce economical and globally competitive quality extracts.
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Technology Management – Training Manual
Raymond Tavares, Alfonso Avila-Merino
This manual on Technology Management (TM) is an educational tool. It is meant to guide local educators in target developing countries. The manual consists of eight sections. The first three sections establish a link between corporate strategy and technology strategy. These sections define the concept of corporate strategy and define the technology strategy leading to the identification of the company’s technology needs. The management of business alliances from a technology perspective is the subject of Section 5. Section 6 examines the product and technology development cycle considering different TM issues. The managing of the technology transfer is analysed in Section 7. The most important risk determinants of such process are also examined. Section 8 deals with the different types of business alliances for achieving higher levels of competitiveness for the firms creating them.
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Survey of Sediment Remediation Technologies
Edson Reis, Andrea Lodolo, Stanislav Miertus
The publication covers the following topics in relation to sediment remediation technologies: in situ physical/chemical treatments, ex situ biological treatments, ex situ physical/chemical treatments, and ex situ thermal treatments.
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Survey of Soil Remediation Technology
This survey covers the following topics in relation to soil remediation technologies: in situ biological treatments, in situ physical/chemical treatments,  in situ thermal treatments, ex situ biological treatments, ex situ physical/chemical treatments, and ex situ thermal treatments.
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Non-combustion Technologies for POPs Destruction: Review and Evaluation
S. Zinoviev, P. Fornasiero, A. Lodolo, S. Miertus
The problem of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) has been recognized in the last 20 years as one of the priorities of the world community to be addressed. POPs and some other halogenated organized compounds represent a class of chemicals which are harmful to humans and the environment. Most of these chemicals have been formerly produced on an industrial scale to be used in agriculture and other applications. Enormous quantities of these chemicals have accumulated worldwide. Measures should first be taken in the developing world to prevent further contamination resulting from POP stockpiles, given that the conditions of storage of these chemicals in these countries are often inadequate. There is overcapacity of incineration technologies, which are sometimes considered undesirable for destruction of chlorinated waste due to the risk of secondary contamination. For that reason, this publication reviews and evaluates the processes of alternative POP destruction technologies.
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Air Pollution Control Technologies: Compendium
Y.M.Fahmy, P. Fornasiero, S. Zinoviev and S. Miertus
The rapid implementation of various technologies focused primarily on increasing the economic efficiency of industry has had an important environmental impact. Besides transport, Industry is the largest consumer of natural resources and one of the main contributors to overall pollution. The industrial sector generates pollutants such as organic substances, CO2, SO¬x and NOx emissions, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This compendium focuses on air pollution control technologies including catalysis for pollution reduction and prevention both for stationary and mobile applications.
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Measuring Sustainability: Theory and Experience from the Mediterranean
L. F. Cassar, E. Conrad, S. Morse
This book brings together a collection of essays recounting experiences with sustainability indicators in a variety of conceptual and geographical contexts. Sustainability indicators can be applied in various ways to different themes, and as is evident from the readings In this book, practices vary widely. This collection is intended to foster critical thinking of the ways in which sustainability indicators have been developed and applied. This will enable a judicious evaluation of the success of strategies and techniques to date, and the formulation of guidance for desirable future developments.
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MEditerranean, COasts and ECOsystems
This multimedia package has been prepared by ICS-UNIDO as an end-of-project publication entitled Baseline research for the integrated sustainable management of Mediterranean sensitive coastal ecosystems, edited by Professor Felicita Scapini and her collaborating partners within the EU-funded MECO Project. The project was concerned with aspects of geology, geomorphology, ecology, animal behaviour, socio-economy and environmental management in selected coastal sites in Malta, Morocco and Tunisia. The manual aims at offering opportunities to those responsible for managing coastal resources in the Mediterranean to compare and extrapolate to other similar scenarios. Thus, the efforts of and experiences gained by all those involved in the MECO Project will be passed on to others endeavouring to understand and conserve the biological and cultural diversity of the Mediterranean. Its contents are presented in 4 languages: Arabic, English, French and Italian.
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BIO-FUELS: Technology Status and Future Trends, Technology Assessment and Decision Support Tools
S. Arumugam, S. Zinoviev, P. Foransiero, S. Miertus, F. Müller-Langer, M. Kaltschmitt, A.Vogel, D. Thraen, F. Kemausuor
The present publication provides a survey of current technologies for the production of bio-fuels and bio-based products, and briefly describes various feedstocks as well as trends of future development toward bio-refineries and integrated production of a variety of products (bio-fuels, chemicals, materials, etc.) in a sustainable way. The final part is dedicated to the assessment of various technologies and their comparison together with a brief description of the concept of decision support tools for technology assessment and preparation of various scenarios for bio-feedstocks exploitation.
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Environmentally Degradable Polymeric Materials and Plastics: Guidelines
S. Hemjinda, A. Krzan, E. Chiellini and S. Miertus
In the last decade, a large number of standard testing procedures and passing criteria for environmentally or bio-degradable plastics have been developed and established by various national and international organizations. This handbook has been prepared in the hope of helping to increase awareness and understanding of the topics of standard testing procedures for EDP by providing introductory information on related aspects. It contains a complete list of standards issued by four major standardization organizations (i.e. ISO, ASTM, CEN, and DIN), including their classifications and analysis. Targeted users of this handbook include laboratory staff, students, producers of EDP, and policy makers.
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Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Asia (vol. II)
S. S. Handa, D. D. Rakesh, K. Vasisht
The International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS-UNIDO) has prepared this Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Asia to present the status of medicinal and aromatic plants of Asian countries. The Compendium gives information on the traditional systems of medicine, government efforts to promote them, medicinal and aromatic plant resources, research and development activities, trade and the major problems faced by sustainable commercial exploitation. It will help countries of the region to improve the health and living standards of their people using their own resources and promoting traditional systems of medicine, which are less expensive and well respected by Asian communities. This publication will be useful to policy-makers, the scientific community and user groups to frame effective policies, formulate projects to advance research and development activities, and establish environmentally sustainable and economically viable enterprises.
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Biological Screening of Plant Constituents – Training Manual
M. P. Gupta, S. S. Handa, K. Vasisht
The preparation of this manual is meant to consolidate the advances and needs of bioscreening techniques that are relevant to diseases in developing countries. Experts agreed at a two day workshop held in 2003 in Eskisehir, Turkey, to discuss the issue and to put together a manual of easy to carry out techniques for modern screening methodologies of plant products for diseases in developing countries. The diseases requiring attention were prioritized and short-listed.
This manual focuses on the following target diseases: infectious and parasitic diseases, inflammatory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. In order to encourage work on traditional medicines, the manual describes bioassay techniques applicable in most laboratories. The manual will contribute towards validating traditional claims and discovering bioactive molecules of natural origin.
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GIS Applications for Monitoring Environmental Change and Supporting Decision-making in Developing Countries
M. Ghribi
This book addresses the methodology and research approach used to integrate and manage data and information from various sources and to enhance decisions through modelling and mapping. It is the first of a series of pilot case studies that will be included in future publications that aim to technically support actors involved in all the key sectors that address the monitoring and management of environment and related risks. This initiative will serve as a catalyst in leveraging technical improvements as well as promoting the application of GIS in other fields in emerging and developing countries.
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Fibre Optics Training Kit – Introductory Experiments Manual (upgraded version)
M. Danailov, G. Denardo, J. N. Mills, A. Demidovich
The purpose of this Fibre Optics Kit is to provide the essential basic knowledge and skills needed to work with fibre optics. It is made up of a number of fibre-optic components for setting laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the basic concepts of optical fibres and giving practical hands-on experience with the basic components involved in the fibre-optics systems. The kit introduces some of the essential laboratory techniques that can be used for characterization of important fibre parameters along with their use in various applications.
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Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Africa (vol. I)
K. Vasisht and V. Kumar
The present and first volume in the series is devoted to Africa, that possesses a
vast treasure of medicinal plants and has produced some exclusive materials such as Prunus africana and pyrethrum for the world market. In addition to the resources and status of medicinal plants in individual African countries, the compilation presents presents an overall view of the socio-economic importance and ecological impact of the use of medicinal and aromatic plants. The available qualitative and quantitative data on medicinal plant resources, R&D activities, the status of their use in traditional systems of medicine and the trade and marketing situation have been compiled for each country. Most of the information presented is of an indicative nature, primarily based on published and unpublished reports, and does not necessarily reflect official views or statistics.
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EDP Environmentally Degradable Polymeric Materials and Plastics – Brief Guidelines
The present Brief Guidelines on Environmentally Degradable Plastics (EDP) were prepared by the International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO) with the purpose of offering up-to-date information on the rapidly developing area of environmentally degradable plastics to key decision makers in governmental, non-governmental, technical, educational and other positions around the globe.
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Study to promote the industrial exploitation of green tea polyphenols in India
ICS took this initiative for the benefit of the tea industry in India and analyzed the samples of various cultivars with a view to identifying the one containing the highest content of epigallocatechin gallate, the most active polyphenol in tea leaves. A large number of tea samples from different parts of the country were analyzed for their content of epigallocatechin gallate to provide a ready source of information to the Indian tea industry. The results of the present study should help the Indian tea industry to focus on the production of green tea and develop non-conventional products to take advantage of the growing public interest in green tea polyphenols for health benefits.
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Medicinal Plants and their Utilization
K. Vasisht and V. Kumar
This publication has consolidated the information generated at different workshops conducted by ICS and gives a detailed account of medicinal and aromatic plant resources, their utilization pattern, R&D activities, and the marketing and trade situation of different countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The document also carries information on quality control and standardization of herbal medicinal products; bio-pesticides and their role in environment; the role of biotechnology in medicinal plants; and trade in herbal medicinal products. Although the information in this publication is not complete, it gives an overview of the prevailing situation in different parts of the in order to help stimulate activity for individuals and businesses associated with any aspect of medicinal and aromatic plants. It will serve as information source for policy-makers, scientists, farming community and entrepreneurs to develop strategies for the development of the medicinal plant sector, and to formulate plans for the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant biodiversity.
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Industrial Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
This is a presentation of the subprogramme on industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants of the ICS Area of Earth, Environmental and Marine Sciences and Technologies. In addition there is a video course on standardization techniques of medicinal and aromatic plants, a self-learning tool used to check and assure the quality of raw materials from medicinal plants. It also gives practical demonstrations of various techniques and methods used in the identification and standardization of medicinal plants. The methods demonstrated are used in routine analysis and quality checking of the raw materials.
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Compendium of Used Oil Regeneration Technologies
F. Dalla Giovanna, O. Khlebinskaia, A Lodolo and S. Miertus
This is an up-to-date compendium on spent oil treatment technologies, thus providing institutions and industries working in this field with the most recent information available. This could be particularly useful for developing and transition countries.
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An Overview of Some Methods for Laser Diagnostics of Flames
Denardo G.
This write-up presents the basic concepts and some current techniques used in the study of combustion processes. The aim is to stimulate international cooperation of scientists and technicians in this field with two purposes: to improve the efficiency of devices and systems where the burning of any type of fuel is used, and to reduce the polluting effects of this. Therefore the scientific and technical approach is mainly addressed at investigating those processes that characterize flames.
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Trade and Production of Herbal Medicines and Natural Health Products
The present publication is designed to contain information on international trade in a comprehensive form touching all-important aspects of the subject. It is expected to help developing countries to understand, penetrate and take benefit from the emerging demand of medicinal plants and their products.
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Training Package Integrated Coastal Area Management (Part one: Training Manual, Part two: Visual Aids)
This training package focuses on the Mediterranean region. However, the concepts, issues, and examples highlighted within most modules may readily be “imported” into other coastal regions. This training package contains modules, each of which is designed as a stand-alone set of lecture notes. Each module is a complete course, thus allowing trainers to choose and mix modules according to training needs and requirements. It is vital that coastal area management is seen as a proactive mechanism, which requires a long-term, holistic and incremental approach to environmental planning and management.
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ICS Lectures on Industrial Applications of Lasers
N.U. Wetter, W. de Rossi
The chief goal of Industrial Applications of Lasers is to examine and describe the most common types of laser in use in industry, while also providing a basic scientific background. The various areas of industrial laser applications— cutting, welding, drilling, marking and scribing, as well as the all-important subject of the laser market— are covered in detail. The end-goal is the provision of a working guide aligned with UNIDO’s strategy of international cooperation towards developing and emerging countries. The laser applications described here are tailored to the objectives of the high-tech industrial sectors of Latin America and focus on the the expanding regional endogenous capacity in the field of laser technology.
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Training Manual, Introduction to Geographic Information Systems for Industrial Development
This manual presents an introduction to GIS for use in industrial development. The application of GIS and its use in combination with remote sensing are illustrated by examples of environmental information and decision support systems. These include case-study demonstrations on urban land use classification and on multi-criteria evaluation for industrial siting.
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Regional Report on Laser Applications in South East Asian Countries
The scope of this work is focused on the survey of laser applications in South East Asian (SEA) countries in the areas of research and development, industries, hospitals, and in environmental monitoring. The purpose of the survey is to identify geographical areas in the regions where laser techniques and applications can be introduced or improved through appropriate actions taken by the ICS-UNIDO. It gives an overview of the diffusion of laser technologies in SEA countries including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar.
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TECCH – Technology, Environment, Competitiveness and Change Management
Donal O’Laoire
TECCH is an initiative of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS). The TECCH initiative arises in the context of the impact of the environmental issue on industrial competitiveness and in particular, the competiveness of the small and medium-scale enterprise (SME) sector in developing and transition economies. The purpose of the TECCH imitative is to enhance national capacities to provide the support mechanisms for small and medium-sized industries, to maintain and develop competitiveness by anticipating commercial and trade changes that are being brought about by the political and social reactions to environmental issues, and by supporting the development and implementation of appropriate managerial and technological response strategies.
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Technology Management for Leap-Frogging Industrial Development
The current widespread need to compete through market differentiation, brought about by globalization and trade liberalization, has placed technological innovation and its effective management at the core of successful enterprise strategies. Furthermore, the sustainability and growth of the global economic system are threatened by growing inequalities, explosive population growth and world power imbalance. The preservation of the quality of life in rich countries makes these countries hostage to the continuous growth of the global economic system and trade liberalization. The only sustainable solution to the above problem is the massive and accelerated economic growth of third-world countries on the basis of environmentally-sound new products and services, which satisfy worldwide aspirations of consumption. That solution calls for a new industrial revolution based on radically new technologies, which represent an opportunity for developing countries to espouse leap-frogging industrial development and contribute to redressing the imbalance in the distribution of world wealth and power.
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Guidelines on Technology Needs Identification in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
This documents puts forward some guidelines on how to identify the critical technological needs of small and medium- sized enterprises and analyse their goals, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities, threats and strategies. Identifying an enterprise’s critical technological needs is essential when formulating an appropriate technology management strategy.
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Laboratory Manual for Pharmacological Evaluation of Natural Products
B. N. Dhawan and R. C. Srimal
This manual contains tests for the screening and evaluation of plant extracts and isolated compounds for biological activity. Simple, well-tested, in vitro methods employing isolated tissues or in vivo procedures that require simple equipment and facilities are described.
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Training Course on Technology Management
This training course includes topics on the following: signals for change, technology strategy, technology acquisition, implementing technology, and learning to improve technology management.
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The Use of Geographic Information Systems in Developing Countries: Social and Management Issues
Sundeep Sahay, Geoff Walsham
The key focus of this publication is to examine and describe management implications that aim to be useful for geographical information systems (GIS) project planners in developing countries, in order to effectively implement GIS projects. The purpose is not to provide a set of prescriptions for project management, but rather to make the planner aware of some of the key issues that he or she needs to be knowledgeable of in organising GIS projects, as well as some some of the ways in which projects have been managed in other contexts.
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The Role of Process Simulation for Sustainable Industrial Development, Trieste, Italy, 1-3 October 2001 (EGM proceedings)
This publication contains the proceedings from the Expert Group Meeting on The Role of Process Simulation for Sustainable Industrial Development, which was held in Trieste, Italy on October 1-3 2001. Process simulation, analysis, optimization and control can play a dramatically important role in the decision-support system within the framework of sustainable development by allowing engineers to perform process screening and a priori analysis on the feasibility of a given industrial plant, as well as performing simulation of performances of waste water treatment and air pollution control. Integration of three fundamental topics: 1) process simulation; 2) environmental simulation and; 3) process control, can give, within the framework of the sustainable development theory, a solution for a decision-making system in developed and developing countries.
For these reasons, there is the urgent need to transfer know-how and familiarity with informatic tools and techniques, implementing the three general topics mentioned above. In this respect, ICS-UNIDO organized an Expert Group Meeting in which experts discussed the different aspects of process simulation, with particular attention given to state-of-the-art processes and the future trends of process simulation and to its applicability in developing countries, within the framework of sustainable development.
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Industrial Development in Coastal Areas of South-East Asia, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 25-27 June 2002 (Workshop proceedings)
This publication contains the workshop proceedings of the Industrial Development in Coastal Areas of South-East Asia workshop which was held in Hanoi, Vietnam on June 25-27, 2001. The workshop was done in collaboration with the Centre for Marine Environement Survey, Research and Consultation, in Hanoi, Vietnam. It looked at enabling countries within the South China Sea to improve their capacity in the use of spatial decision support systems based on review of: national and international case studies concerning the monitoring of industrial development in coastal areas of the South China Sea; methods for the identification of optimal site planning of new industries; and supporting tools related to the application of the advanced technological framework of the decision domain.
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Basic Experiments on Laser Diagnostics of Combustion
Miltcho Danailov, Pal Apai
This booklet aims at offering introduction material on some basic problems relevant to the study of flames. It is addressed also to scientists with modest expertise in the specific field of combustion diagnostics. Some topics are chosen and presented keeping in mind the environmental impact of combustion processes. The material presented was part of the programme of the ICS Training Course on Laser “Diagnostics of Combusion Processes” held in Trieste from 1 to 5 March 1999. It is meant to provide suggestions to those who may wish to hold an introductory course on laser diagnostics of simple combustion processes. The experiments presented here are simple and can be reproduced without specialized equipment.
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Proc. EGM Environmentally Degradable Plastics: present status and perspectives, Trieste, Italy, 16-17 Nov 2000
The present publication is on the proceedings of papers presented at the expert group meeting (EGM) within the programme of Environmentally Degradable Plastics (EDPs) held at the International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS-UNIDO) Trieste, Italy on Nov 16-17, 2000.
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Proc. Regional Workshop Lasers and Optoelectronics Puspiptek Serpong, Indonesia, 25 June – 6 July 2001
Workshop Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Lasers and Optoelectronics in Puspiptek Serpong, Indonesia, held on June 25-July 6, 2001. Lectures include: Research, Development and Applications of Lasers and Optoelectronics in Indonesia, Information In the Speed of Light, the Indonesian Perspective, Theory of Laser, Diode Pumped solid State Laser Systems, Polishing of Diamond Layers, Temperature Monitoring with fluorescing Dyes, Pulsed Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Imaging, Laser as Medical Instrument for Surgery, Dye-enhanced articular Cartilage Soldering, Fibre Fragg Gratings for Telecommunication and Sensing, Telecommunications Optically, Laser Application in the Life Extension of Engineering components, Integrated Optics, Laser Application for Pollution Monitoring/LIDAR, Processing Technology of Semiconductor Laser, Interferometry by Holography and Speckle, Holography and Digital Holography, Laser-induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy, Laser Application in Medicine, and Hologram as Protection in Security Packaging.
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Proc. EGM POPs and Pesticides Contamination: Remediation Technologies, Trieste, Italy 17-19 April 2000; Clean Technologies for the Reduction and Elimination of POPs, Trieste, Italy 4-5 May 2000
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Industrial Utilization of Pyrethrum, 29-30 May 2000, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Workshop proceedings)
Workshop proceedings of the Industrial Utilization of Pyrethrum workshop held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on May 29-30, 2000. The workshop invited participants from the pyrethrum industry, research institutes, governmental agencies and farmers associations to debate and recommend action for encouraging pyrethrum production and processing in traditional strong bases in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania
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Proc. Workshop Technology Foresight: A UNIDO-ICS Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean, Trieste, Italy, 7-9 December 1999
This publication contains workshop proceedings of the Technology Foresight: A UNIDO-ICS Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean workshop . The objective of this workshop was to create an international platform of discussion to ensure that the interest in technology foresight in the region is real and backed by practical intentions and commitment. It is believed that there is a real demand for both technology foresight and for the kind of support services the Initiative would supply. This initiative seeks the establishment of a knowledge network with open-access for dialogue and exchange of expertise, interactive storage of knowledge, experiences, best practices and skills inventories. This is done with the objective of spreading the techniques and know-how to the largest possible number of foresight practitioners and decision makers in the region.
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Lecture Notes Training Course Laser Diagnostics of Combustion Processes, Trieste, Italy, 1-5 March 1999
Introductory course to laser diagnostics of combustion processes, which includes selected lecture notes distributed at the ICS-UNIDO training course on Laser Diagnostics of Combustion Processes, held in Trieste, Italy on March 1-5, 1999. Topics include: spectroscopy of flame emission, gas detection by absorption spectroscopy using infrared diode laser, determination of soot volume fraction by extinction, laser induced fluorescence in a Bunsen flame, and velocity measurement in a spray using laser Doppler velocimetry.
Technological and Economic Aspects of Soil Bio/Phyto Remediation
Country reports and selected papers from the Training Workshops of ICS-UNIDO on Soil Environmental Assessment and Bioremediation Technologies, and Technological and Economic Aspects of Soil Bio/Phyto Remediation.
Bioprospecting and Strategies for Industrial Exploitation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Workshop proceedings)
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The workshop proceedings of the Bioprospecting and Strategies for Industrial Exploitation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants workshop held in Enugo, Nigeria on September 22-27, 1997.
Drug Design and Discovery for Developing Countries
Book of selected papers of invited experts at the ICS-UNIDO International Conference in Trieste, Italy, on July 3-5, 2008. Topics such as antiparasitic drug discovery (malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis), antiviral drug discovery (HIV, hepatitis, avian flu, dengue), and antibiotics drug discovery (tuberculosis) are covered.
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